[73], A serious Swedish defeat at Nördlingen in September 1634 threatened their participation, leading France to intervene directly. While both Leagues were primarily designed to support the dynastic ambitions of their leaders, their creation combined with events like the 1609 to 1614 War of the Jülich Succession to increase tensions throughout the Empire. It started with a bizarre act of violence The Thirty Years War began with a scene now infamous in history: the May 18, 1618 ejection, or “defenestration,” of … Updates? [93] In May, a Bavarian force under von Mercy destroyed a French detachment at Herbsthausen, before he was defeated and killed at Second Nördlingen in August. [40], By abandoning Frederick, the German princes hoped to restrict the dispute to Bohemia, but Maximilian's dynastic ambitions made this impossible. [84] The Swedes captured Leipzig in December, giving them a significant new base in Germany, and although they failed to take Freiberg in February 1643,[85] the Saxon army was reduced to a few garrisons. [147], While differences over religion remained an issue throughout the 17th century, it was the last major war in Continental Europe in which it can be said to be a primary driver; later conflicts were either internal, such as the Camisards revolt in South-Western France, or relatively minor like the 1712 Toggenburg War. The Thirty Years' War ended with the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. In the October 1619 Treaty of Munich, Ferdinand agreed to transfer the Palatinate's electoral vote to Bavaria and allow him to annex the Upper Palatinate. [38], On 19 August, the Bohemian Estates rescinded Ferdinand's 1617 election as king, and on 26th, formally offered the crown to Frederick instead; two days later, Ferdinand was elected Emperor, making war inevitable if Frederick accepted. [57] Von Arnim was forced to lift the siege on 4 August, but three weeks later, Christian suffered another defeat at Wolgast. [76], Ferdinand II died in February 1637 and was succeeded by his son Ferdinand III, who faced a The high mortality rate compared to the Wars of the Three Kingdoms in Britain may partly be due to the reliance of all sides on foreign mercenaries, often unpaid and required to live off the land. In March 1638, Bernhard destroyed an Imperial army at Rheinfelden, while his capture of Breisach in December secured French control of Alsace and severed the Spanish Road. [121] However, the conflict has been described as one of the greatest medical catastrophes in history. The Thirty Years’ War Religious Divide in the Holy Roman Empire. The Thirty Years' War (German: Dreißigjähriger Krieg, pronounced [ˈdʁaɪ̯sɪçˌjɛːʁɪɡɐ kʁiːk] ()) was a conflict fought in modern Germany and Central Europe from 1618 to 1648. The Thirty Years’ War was a series of conflicts that began early in the 17th century in the Holy Roman Empire and finally involved much of Europe. Then the predominant global power, the Spanish Empire included the Spanish Netherlands, much of Italy, the Philippines, and most of the Americas, while Austria remained focused on Central Europe. The major provisions of the peace agreements were: Switzerland and the Dutch Republic achieved independence On 19 May, Condé won a famous victory over the Spanish at Rocroi, although it was less decisive than often assumed. Meanwhile the conflict widened, fueled by political ambitions of the various powers. In the end, the Portuguese retained control of Brazil and Angola, but the Dutch captured the Cape of Good Hope, as well as Portuguese possessions in Malacca, the Malabar Coast, the Moluccas and Ceylon. deteriorating military position. a) 1800 b) 1818 c) 1618 d) 1722 3. [34], Thurn established a new government, and the conflict expanded into Silesia and the Habsburg heartlands of Lower and Upper Austria, where much of the nobility was also Protestant. [59], Once again, the methods used to obtain victory explain why the war failed to end. [71] Two months later, the Swedes won a resounding victory at Lützen, where Gustavus was killed. When Frederick refused to admit defeat, the war expanded into the Palatinate, whose strategic importance drew in external powers, notably the Dutch Republic and Spain. Pretty simple question, why hasn't the Thirty Years War started even though I'm already in the XVIII century? Lack of a sense of 'shared community' resulted in atrocities such as the destruction of Magdeburg, in turn creating large numbers of refugees who were extremely susceptible to sickness and hunger. The Revolt occupied Halberstadt in early 1625 Years ’ War follows of both sides plundered as marched. 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