The leaves become leathery, brittle and distorted. Plant Sci 228:11–25, Gilbertson RL, Rojas M, Natwick E (2011) Development of integrated pest management (IPM) strategies for whitefly (, Gilbertson RL, Batuman O, Webster CG, Adkins S (2015) Role of the insect supervectors, Gillette WK, Meade TJ, Jeffrey JL, Petty IT (1998) Genetic determinants of host-specificity in bipartite geminivirus DNA A components. Arch Virol 158:531–542. Slice of nature virgin papaya oil cold pressed 100 pure papaya seed oil with papaya enzyme papain papaya oil for face body 1 oz. J Hort Sci Tech 80(3):291–296, Saxena S, Singh N, Ranade SA, Sunil GB (2011) Strategy for generic resistance to geminiviruses infecting tomato and papaya through in silico siRNA search. Papaya leaf curl disease was first reported in India in 1939 (1). Plant Cell 2:279–289, Niu QW, Lin SS, Reyes JL, Chen KC, Wu HW, Yeh SD, Chua NH (2006) Expression of artificial microRNAs in transgenic, Pantoja A, Follett PA, Villanueva-Jiménez JA (2002) Pests of papaya. Papaya Special is Complete Pack of treatment, very easy to handle highly effective on controlling of Phytophthora Root Diseases, Stem Rot, Root Rot ,Collar Rot, Papaya Bacterial Crown Rot Diseases, Papaya Ring Spot Diseases, Papaya Leaf Curl Diseases, Papaya Leaf Distortion Mosaic virus, Papaya Bunche TOP Diseases, Papaya Yellow Mosaic Virus. Mol Cancer Ther 4:948–955, Yang CX, Luo JS, Zheng LM, Wu ZJ, Xie LH (2011) Mixed infection of papaya leaf curl China virus and. Brustolini OJB, Machado JPB, Condori-Apfata JA, Coco D, Deguchi M, Loriato VAP, Pereira WA, Alfenas-Zerbini P, Zerbini FM, Inoue-Nagata AK, Santos AA, Chory J, Silva FF, Fontes EPB (2015) Sustained NIK-mediated antiviral signalling confers broad-spectrum tolerance to begomoviruses in cultivated plants. Papaya (Carrica papaya) is one of the most important horticultural crops of the country. papaya leaf curl (PalCV) particularly in northern parts of India. Acta Hort 851:241–245, Srivastava A, Raj SK, Kumar S, Snehi SK (2013) New record of papaya leaf curl virus and ageratum leaf curl beta-satellite associated with yellow vein disease of aster in India. New Dis Rep 28:6, Srivastava A, Jaidi M, Kumar S, Raj SK, Shukla S (2015) Association of papaya leaf curl virus with the leaf curl disease of grain amaranth (, Sunitha S, Marian D, Hohn B, Veluthambi K (2011) Antibegomoviral activity of the agrobacterial virulence protein VirE2. Caused by begomovirus, Papaya leaf curl virus (PaLCV) (2), this disease was discovered in the papaya orchards of southern Taiwan in 2002. doi: Shukla AK, Upadhyay SK, Mishra M, Saurabh S, Singh R, Singh H et al (2016) Expression of an insecticidal fern protein in cotton protects against whitefly. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 43:527–555, Day AG, Bejarano ER, Buck KW, Burrell M, Lichtenstein CP (1991) Expression of an antisense viral gene in transgenic tobacco confers resistance to the DNA virus tomato golden mosaic virus. Papaya leaf is also commonly known for its ability to fight against infection caused by virus such as common cold or influenza. Citrifrut 29(1):28–34, Luan JB, Li JM, Varela N, Wang YL, Li FF, Bao YY, Zhang CX, Liu SS, Wang XW (2011) Global analysis of the transcriptional response of whitefly to, Macpherson JL, Boyd MP, Arndt AJ, Todd AV, Fanning GC, Ely JA, Elliott F, Knop A, Raponi M et al (2005) Long-term survival and concomitant gene expression of ribozyme-transduced CD4+ T-lymphocytes in HIV-infected patients. Sci Rep 6:34706. Leaf margins get curled downwards and inwards with dark greenish, thick veins (Fig. Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service: E-626. Papaya leaf curl virus Index. Infected papaya developed symptoms such as downward curling of … Plant Pathol. Naturwissenschaften 98:473–492, Javaid S, Amin I, Jander G, Mukhtar Z (2016) A transgenic approach to control hemipteran insects by expressing insecticidal genes under phloem-specific promoters. The papaya leaf curl disease is included the vital symptoms like stunted plant growth, inware or outward curling of plant leaves, and vein thickening with small distorted fruits or no fruits. doi: Mishra M, Chandra R, Saxena S (2007) Papaya. The various components of vitamin like Vitamin A, Vitamin C, and Vitamin E will boost your immune system. J Appl Hortic 18(1):80–84, Schubert S, Kurreck J (2004) Ribozyme- and deoxyribozyme-strategies for medical applications. Ann Appl Biol 140:109–127. Hortic Environ Biotechnol 57(2):113–122. The disease was characterized by typical leaf curl symptoms produced on many crop plants, by whitefly transmitted geminiviruses (WTGs). Mol. References: (1) A. Nadeem et al. Virology 291:110–125. Curr Drug Targets 5:667–681. ADVERTISEMENTS: To avoid and damage following spray schedule may be followed: Sahu AK, Nehra C, Gaur RK (2015) Molecular diversity of monopartite begomovirus coat protein and betasatellite associated with different crop species in India. One of my papaya trees has contracted this strange condition where the leaves are curling up into weird shapes. Several diagnostic techniques especially molecular techniques have been developed to detect the begomoviruses at early stages of infection to control the further spread of the begomovirus, but so far not much reports are available to control the begomoviral infection at later stage. Plant Physiol 151:925–935, Briddon RW, Brown JK, Moriones E, Stanley J, Zerbini M, Zhou X, Fauquet CM (2008) Recommendations for the classification and nomenclature of the DNA-βsatellites of begomoviruses. Nat Plants 1:15145. doi: Bendahmane M, Gronenborn B (1997) Engineering resistance against tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) using antisense RNA. For the production of crops, a major threat is the virus of Papaya leaf curl which has the : 7401, Fontes EPB, Santos AA, Luz DF, Waclawovsky AJ, Chory J (2004) The geminivirus NSP acts as virulence factor to suppress an innate transmembrane receptor kinase-mediated defense signaling. Leaves of the diseased plants displayed downward curling and thickened, dark green veins. Biochem Mol Biol Int 45:101–113, Saxena S, Chandra R, Srivastava AP, Mishra M, Pathak RK, Ranade SA (2005) Analysis of genetic diversity among papaya cultivars using single primer amplification reaction (SPAR) methods. Control: Same as in Papaya mosaic virus. Trends Biochem Sci 28:495–501, Lindbo J, Silva-Rosales L, Proebsting W, Dougherty W (1993) Induction of a highly specific antiviral state in transgenic plants: implications for regulation of gene expression and virus resistance. Reddy MK, Venkataravanappa V, Madhuvanthi B, Jalali S (2010) Molecular characterization of Begomoviruses associated with papaya leaf curl disease in India. (11 points) Caused by begomovirus, Papaya leaf curl virus (PaLCV) (2), this disease was discovered in the papaya orchards of southern Taiwan in 2002. Acta Hort 695:225–240, Gafni Y, Epel B (2002) The role of host and viral proteins in intra- and inter-cellular trafficking of geminiviruses. Plant Mol Biol 33(2):351–357, Bleeker PM, Diergaarde PJ, Ament K, Guerra J, Weidner M, Schutz S, de Both MTJ, Haring MA, Schuurink RC (2009) The role of specific tomato volatiles in tomato-whitefly interaction. Reyes MI, Nash TE, Dallas MM, Ascencio-Ibáñez JT, Hanley-Bowdoin L (2013) Peptide aptamers that bind to geminivirus replication proteins confer a resistance phenotype to tomato yellow leaf curl virus and tomato mottle virus infection in tomato. India, Posted by: sudan Plant Cell 5:1749–1759, Lopez EP, Pantoja ML (2012) Main bacterial diseases affecting papaya, pineapple and mangoes. A proceeding of IInd IS on papaya. Posted: September 12, 2017, Learn more about your crops in our library, Learn about ways to keep your crops healthy. Papaya leaf curl virus, of geminivirus group, is transmitted by whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) under natural conditions. Leaf curl disease is one of the major diseases in the World caused by a virus. Papaya Leaf Curl Guangdong Virus and Ageratum Yellow Vein Virus Associated with Leaf Curl Disease of Tobacco in China Caixia Yang. The leaf curl disease is caused by a complex of whitefly ( … Papaya leaf curl virus is a major threat for the crop production, and the virus has the capability to adapt new plant hosts very rapidly which helps in their host range extension that also has emerged as an evolving risk in papaya production. Trends Ecol Evol 19(10):535–544, Antignus Y, Nestel D, Cohen S, Lapidot M (2001) Ultraviolet-deficient greenhouse environment affects whitefly attraction and flight-behavior. Of these about 5-6 diseases like collar rot, damping off, anthracnose, mosaic and leaf curl are serious problems in many papaya growing areas of the world. Virology 251:361–369, Gonsalves C, Lee DR, Gonsalves D (2007) The adoption of genetically modified papaya in Hawaii and its implications for developing countries. Papaya leaf curl disease, first reported from India in 1939 (Thomas and Krishnaswamy, 1939), is caused by the begoinovirus Papiri’a lea/curl virus (PaLCV) (Saxena et at., 1998). J Dev Stud 43(1):177–191, Grishok A, Pasquinelli AE, Conte D, Li N, Parrish S, Ha I, Baillie DL, Fire A, Ruvkun G, Mello CC (2001) Genes and mechanisms related to RNA interference regulate expression of the small temporal RNAs that control, Guo T, Guo Q, Cui X, Liu Y et al (2015) Comparison of transmission of papaya leaf curl China virus among four cryptic species of the whitefly, Hallan V, Saxena S, Singh BP (1998a) Ageratum, croton and malvastrum harbour geminiviruses: evidence through PCR amplification. Miedaner T, Korzun V (2012) Marker-assisted selection for disease resistance in wheat and barley breeding. Int J Bioinforma Res Appl 9(1):3–12, Saxena S, Singh VK, Verma S (2016) PCR mediated detection of sex and PaLCuV infection in papaya- a review. Virus Res 71:233–260. Phytoparasitica 8:105. doi: Raj SK, Snehi SK, Khan MS, Singh R, Khan AA (2008) Molecular evidence for association of tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus with leaf curl disease of papaya (, Raj SK, Snehi SK, Tiwari AK, and Rao GP (2010) Biological, molecular identification and management strategies of Begomovirus infecting cucurbitaceous crops in India, Published from LLC Press USA (2010) Recent trades in Plant Virology. Symptoms: Leaf curl of papaya is characterized by severe curling, crinkling and distortion of the leaves accompanied by vein clearing and reduction in the leaf size. The major limiting factor in cultivation of papaya is its susceptibility to viral diseases e.g. This is a preview of subscription content, Abel PP, Nelson RS, De B, Hoffmann N, Rogers SG, Fraley RT, Beachy RN (1986) Delay of disease development in transgenic plants that express the tobacco mosaic virus coat protein gene. IOSR-JBM 16(7):20–23, Ilyas M, Qazi J, Mansoor S, Briddon RW (2010) Genetic diversity and phylogeography of begomoviruses infecting legumes in Pakistan. This disease is of moderate incidence and widely distributed in India. We are currently determining the relationship between the geminivirus infecting papaya and cotton leaf curl virus. Arch Phytopathol Plant Protect. Papaya leaf curl disease was first reported in 1939 by Thomas and Krishnaswamy (3). Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 60:231–241, Galvez LC, Banerjee J, Pinar H, Mitra A (2014) Engineered plant virus resistance. Plant Physiol 142:7–20, Usman N, Blatt LM (2000) Nuclease-resistant synthetic ribozymes: developing a new class of therapeutics. Papaya leaf curl virus, a begomovirus, is the main causative agent for the disease, but many other begomoviruses as well as betasatellites have also been reported on papaya leaf curl … Curling, crinkling and distortion of leaves due to papaya leaf curl virus, Click here to go to the topics page to know more about the crop. Hortic Bras 34:8–18. Plant Dis 87(2):204, Chen YK, Chao HY, Shih PJ, Tsai WY, Chao CH (2016a) First report of. J Virol 79:9885–9895. 52). Papaya leaf curl disease is caused by Papaya leaf curl virus (PaLCuV), a begomovirus naturally transmitted through whitefly ( Bemisia tabaci ). Papaya has considerable economic importance to agriculture in India. There are over 17 diseases caused by fungi, viruses, mycoplasma and nematodes, which affect papaya plant all over the world. Posted: September 12, 2017, Posted by: Dr. Ravishankar Narayana Papaya leaf curl disease Disease symptoms Curling, crinkling and distortion of leaves, reduction of leaf lamina, rolling of leaf margins inward and downward, thickening of veins. This chapter provides the information about many aspects like causal pathogen, vector responsible for disease spread/transmission, host range and phylogenetic analysis of virus associated with the papaya leaf curl disease, and different resistance approaches for possible management of the disease. Leaf-like enations grew from the base of the diseased leaves. Nat Biotechnol 27:1086–1088, Ateyyat MA, Shatnawi M, Mohammad SA (2009) Culturable Whitefly associated bacteria and their potential as biological control agents 2(3):139–144, Azzam OJ, Frazer D, La Rosa D, Beaver JS, Ahlquist P, Maxwell DP (1994) Whitefly transmission and efficient ssDNA accumulation of bean golden mosaic geminivirus require functional coat protein. RNA 8:214–228, © Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2017, Begomoviruses: Occurrence and Management in Asia and Africa, http://nhb.gov.in/area-pro/NHB_Database_2015.pdf, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0153883, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0087235, Department of Biotechnology, School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-5984-1_7. Studium Press LLC, USA, p 135–155, Ratcliff F, Harrison BD, Baulcombe DC (1997) A similarity between viral defense and gene silencing in plants. Apart from curling the leaves also exhibit vein clearing and thickening of the veins. It is mainly transmitted by whiteflies. Nat Biotechnol 34:1046–1051, Sieburth LE, Drews GN, Meyerowitz EM (1998) Non-autonomy of, Srivastava N, Chandra R, Saxena S, Bajpai A (2010) PCR based amplification and detection of papaya leaf curl virus (PaLCuV). pp 111-135 | Yeam I (2016) Current advances and prospectus of viral resistance in horticultural crops. Southwest Entomol 16:37–43, Byun HS, Kil EJ, Seo H, Suh SS, Lee TK, Lee JH, Kim JK, Lee KY, Ko SJ, Lee GS, Choi HS, Kim CS, Lee S (2016) First report of papaya leaf curl virus in papayas in Korea and recovery of its symptoms. J Virol 87:9691–9706. Main symptoms of papaya leaf curl disease are inward/outward curling of plant leaves, vein thickening, and stunted plant growth with small distorted fruits or no fruits. First Report of Euphorbia leaf curl virus and Papaya leaf curl Guangdong virus on Passion Fruit in Taiwan. I have watered this (and the other trees) with plenty of water. Settlage SB, See RG, Hanley-Bowdoin L (2005) Geminivirus C3 protein: replication enhancement and protein interactions. Phytopathology 102:560–566. Hi Sudan, how many plants are infected? Y. Cheng , T. Deng , C. C. Chen , C. H. Chiang , C. Chang Plant disease India is the largest producer of papaya in the world. Saeed ST, Samad A (2016) Emerging threats of begomoviruses to the cultivation of medicinal and aromatic crops and their management strategies. Research Signpost, Trivandrum. Plant Dis 100(9):1958, Carrington JC, Ambros V (2003) Role of microRNAs in plant and animal development. Singh, et al. doi: Lee W, Park J, Lee GS, Seunghwan LS, Akimoto SI (2013) Taxonomic status of the, Legaspi JC, Simmons AM (2012) Evaluation of selected commercial oils as oviposition deterrents against the silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). doi: Sagar SB, Parmar HC, Darji VB (2012) Economics of production of papaya in middle Gujarat region of Gujarat, India. Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips. Chapter Plant viruses: evolution and management, pp 189–203, Morales FJ (2001) Conventional breeding for resistance to, Morroni M, Thompson JR, Tepfer M (2008) Twenty years of transgenic plants resistant to cucumber mosaic virus. In: Viruses in the environment 37/661(2). Virus Genes 43:445–453, Tajul MI, Naher K, Hossain T, Siddiqui Y, Sariah M (2011), Tamura K, Stecher G, Peterson D, Filipski A, Kumar S (2013) MEGA6: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis version 6.0. Papaya leaf curl disease (PaLCuD) caused by papaya leaf curl virus (PaLCuV) not only affects yield but also plant growth and fruit size and quality of papaya and is one of the most damaging and economically important disease. Plant Mol Biol 43:295–306, Masabni J, Anciso J, Wallace R (2011) What makes tomato leaves twist or curl? Virus Genes 43:409–434, Saxena S, Rupesh KK, Singh V (2013) Designing of putative siRNA against geminiviral suppressors of RNAi to develop geminivirus-resistant papaya crop. GJBAHS 1(2):10–17. Chen H, Lin C, Tsai W et al (2016b) Resistance to viral yellow leaf curl in tomato through RNAi targeting two Begomovirus species strains. In: Pena J, Sharp J, Wysoki M (eds) Tropical fruit pests and pollinators: biology, economic importance, natural enemies and control, pp 131–156, Paula FT, Gustavo AF, Marcia ER (2007) Viruses infecting papaya (. Lapidot M, Friedman M (2002) Breeding for resistance to whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses. 1Institute of Plant Virology, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, 350002 China. Publ. Curr Sci 84:341–354, Dawson WO, Hilf ME (1992) Host range determination of plant viruses. Feather leaf Unknown virus Leaf curl Virus suspected Mosaic Papaya mosaic virus: Papaya ringspot: Papaya ringspot virus: Papaya lethal yellowing: Papaya lethal yellowing virus: Spotted wilt Tomato spotted wilt virus: Sticky disease ('meleira') Papaya meleira virus complex Terminal necrosis and wilt Tobacco ringspot virus: References    Papaya leaf curl disease was first recorded in India in 1930's and shown to be transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci. Next to each name within this complete list is the virus family to. The main symptoms are downward and inward rolling of top leaves and thickening of veins. Bio/Technology 12:500–504. This virus attacks crops like cotton, papaya, tomato, bhendi, chillies, capsicum, and tobacco and causes major economic losses to the farmers. J Gene Med 7:552–564, Mansoor S, Briddon RW, Bull SE, Bedford ID, Bashir A, Hussain M et al (2003), Marathe R, Anandalakshmi R, Smith TH, Pruss GJ, Vance VB (2000) RNA viruses as inducers, suppressors and targets of post-transcriptional gene silencing. Science 276:1558–1560. FEBS Lett 588:1967–1972, Mishra R, Gaur R K, Patil BL (2016) Current knowledge of viruses infecting papaya and their transgenic management. doi: Prasad JS, Verma RAB (1980) Efficacy of certain antibiotics in the control of postharvest decay of papaya fruits. Science 232:738–743. AgriLifeExtension.tamu.edu, Maule AJ, Caranta C, Boulton MI (2007) Sources of natural resistance to plant viruses: status and prospects. It could be papaya leaf curl disease caused by papaya leaf curl virus. Springer, New York, pp 230–257, Mishra SK, Chilakamarthi U, Deb JK, Mukherjee SK (2014) Unfolding of in planta activity of anti-rep ribozyme in presence of a RNA silencing suppressor. Virus Genes 29:303–309, Wang LL, Wang XR, Wei XM, Huang H, Wu JX, Chen XX et al (2016) The autophagy pathway participates in resistance to, Weng DE, Masci PA, Radka SF, Jackson TE, Weiss PA, Ganapathi R, Elson PJ, Capra WB, Parker VP, Lockridge JA, Cowens JW, Usman N, Borden EC (2005) A phase I clinical trial of a ribozyme-based angiogenesis inhibitor targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 for patients with refractory solid tumors. Identity Taxonomic Tree Distribution Table Vectors and Intermediate Hosts References Distribution Maps Summary. Pramesh D, Mandal B, Phaneendra C, Muniyappa V (2013) Host range and genetic diversity of croton yellow vein mosaic virus, a weed-infecting monopartite begomovirus causing leaf curl disease in tomato. Rojas MR, Jiang H, Salati R, Xoconostle-Cázares B, Sudarshana MR, Lucas WJ et al (2001) Functional analysis of proteins involved in movement of the monopartite Begomovirus, tomato yellow leaf curl virus. Indian Horticulture Database, Saxena M, Gandhi CP (eds) National Horticulture Board, Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India, Gurgaon. I have used compost soil and cow dung to fertilize them. J Agric Tech 10(5):1213–1229, Khan MS, Tiwari AK, Ji SH, Chun SC (2012), Khan MS, Tiwari AK, Khan AA, Ji SH, Chun SC (2013), Khan MS, Tiwari AK, Raj SK, Srivastava A, Ji SH, Chun SC (2014) Molecular epidemiology of begomoviruses occurring on vegetables, grain legume and weed species in Terai belt of north India. Rawell RD (2010) Fungal diseases of papaya and their management. I have many papaya trees, and this is the only one that is like this. Thus, papaya leaves can be very useful to keep you healthy and stay away from any viral infections. Environ Entomol 30(2):394–399, Aragao FJ, Faria JC (2009) First transgenic geminivirus-resistant plant in the field. Arch Virol 153:763–781, Brown JK (2001) Molecular markers for the identification and global tracking of whitefly vector-begomovirus complexes. Virology 204:289–296. These symptoms are similar to those of cotton leaf curl disease. These data demonstrated that a geminivirus may be the causative agent of this papaya disease. This is the first report of the papaya leaf curl disease in Pakistan. Mol Plant-Microbe Interact 21:675–684, Nadeem A, Mehmood T, Tahir M, Khalid S, Xiong Z (1997) First report of papaya leaf curl disease in Pakistan. To identify alternative hosts of this virus, a survey of weed samples with typical leaf‐curling, vein‐thickening and yellow‐vein symptoms were collected in papaya‐growing areas. Infected papaya developed symptoms such as downward curling of leaves, twisted petioles, vein en … Has a spicy type odor and an spicy type flavor. Plant Biotechnol J. doi: Butler GDJR, Henneberry TJ (1991) Sweetpotato whitefly control: effect of tomato cultures and plant derived oils. In severe case the affected leaves may drop off and stop the plant growth. In: Kole C (ed) Genome mapping and molecular breeding in plants- fruits and nuts, vol 4. Mol Plant Pathol 8:223–231. 2016. doi: Zhang H, Ma XY, Qian YJ, Zhou XP (2010) Molecular characterization and infectivity of, Zinnen SP, Domenico K, Wilson M, Dickinson BA, Beaudry A, Mokler V, Daniher AT, Burgin A, Beigelman L (2002) Selection, design, and characterization of a new potentially therapeutic ribozyme. Whitefly management is the main method to control the spread of this virus so far. J Clin Invest 106:1197–1202, Vieira MR, Correa LS (2001) Whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and the predator, Voinnet O, Baulcombe DC (1997) Systemic signalling in gene silencing. Indian J Exp Biol 36:229–232, Saxena S, Hallan V, Singh BP, Sane PV (1998c) Nucleotide sequence and inter-geminiviral homologies of the DNA A of papaya leaf curl geminivirus from India. The plants become stunted and bear no fruit. Indian Phytopath 68(1):123–126, Edelbaum D, Gorovits R, Sasaki S, Ikegami M, Czosnek H (2008) Expressing a whitefly GroEL protein in Nicotiana benthamiana plants confers tolerance to tomato yellow leaf curl virus and cucumber mosaic virus, but not to grapevine virus A or tobacco mosaic virus. Whiteflies require a latent period to become viruliferous. URL: Inoue-Nagata AK, Lima MF, Gilbertson RL (2016) A review of geminivirus (begomovirus) diseases in vegetables and other crops in Brazil: current status and approaches for management. Papaya Leaf Curl (Virus): Young leaves at the apex of the infected plants curl, twist and become deformed. The most obvious symptoms of this disease are the downward or inward curling leaves. Therefore, keeping in view above fact, the present research work was carried out on survey, diagnosis and identification of resistance source of leaf curl virus infecting papaya (Carica papaya L.)” in India. IInd international symposium on papaya, ISHS Acta hort 851, Raza A, Malik HJ, Shafiq M, Amin I, Scheffler JA, Scheffler BE et al (2016) RNA interference based approach to down regulate osmoregulators of whitefly (. © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. doi: Cheng YH, Deng TC, Chen CC et al (2014) First report of, Culik MP, Martins DDS (2004) First record of, Culik MP, Martins DDS, Ventura JA (2003) Índice de artrópodes pragas do mamoeiro (, Czosnek H (2008) Acquisition, circulation and transmission of begomoviruses by their whitefly vectors. Sci Hortic 201:346–354, Haung JF, Zhou XP (2006) First report of papaya leaf curl China virus infecting, Hemambara HS, Yogesh MS (2014) Production and marketing problems of papaya growers in north Karnataka. World J Microb Biot 14:931–932, Hallan V, Saxena S, Singh BP (1998b) Yellow net of, Hanson P, Lu SF, Wang JF, Chen W, Kenyon L et al (2016) Conventional and molecular marker-assisted selection and pyramiding of genes for multiple disease resistance in tomato. Ji X, Zhang H, Zhang Y, Wang Y, Gao C (2015) Establishing a CRISPR– Cas-like immune system conferring DNA virus resistance in plants. It gets a fair amount of sunshine. Baltes NJ, Hummel AW, Konecna E, Cegan R, Bruns AN, Bisaro DM et al (2015) Conferring resistance to geminiviruses with the CRISPR–Cas prokaryotic immune system. Sometimes the petioles are twisted. IInd IS on Papaya Acta hort: 465–472. Nature 389:553, Wang XY, Xie YZhou XP (2004) Molecular characterization of two distinct begomoviruses from papaya in China. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100:4429–4434. J Plant Path 91(4 - Supplement):S4–107, Kunik T, Salomon R, Zamair D, Zeidan M, Michelson I, Gafni Y, Czosnek H (1994) Transgenic tomato plants expressing the tomato yellow leaf curl virus capsid protein are resistant to the virus. J Plant Biochem Biotechnol 25(2):199–207. Papaya plants with virus-disease-like symptoms were observed in back yards and commercial groves in Multan, Pakistan. Mostly the young leaves are affected. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 88:6721–6725. J Gen Virol 91:2091–2101. Main symptoms of papaya leaf curl disease are inward/outward curling of plant leaves, vein thickening, and stunted plant growth with small distorted fruits or … Is there any other crops surrounding? This service is more advanced with JavaScript available, Begomoviruses: Occurrence and Management in Asia and Africa J Plant Dis Protect 121(2):53–57, Khatoon S, Kumar A, Sarin NB, Khan JA (2016) RNAi-mediated resistance against cotton leaf curl disease in elite Indian cotton (, Kumar J, Kumar A, Khan JA, Aminuddin (2009) First report of papaya leaf curl virus naturally infecting tobacco in India. Plant Dis 81(11):1333, Napoli C, Lemieux C, Jorgensen R (1990) Introduction of chimeric chalcone synthase gene into Petunia results in reversible cosuppression of homologous genes in trans. Genes Dev 18:2545–2556, Foolad MR, Sharma A (2005) Molecular markers as selection tools in tomato breeding. Ali Z, Abulfaraj A, Idris A, Ali S, Tashkandi M, Mahfouz M (2015) CRISPR/Cas9-mediated viral interference in plants. •Soilapplication of Carbofuran (1 kg a.i./ha) at the time of sowing and 4-5 foliar sprays of Dimethoate (0.05%) or Metasystox (0.02%) at an interval of … Front Plant Sci 7:475. doi: Jagtap UB, Gurav RG, Bapat VA (2011) Role of RNA interference in plant improvement. (Papaya leaf curl virus.) Genome Biol 16:238. doi: Anderson PK, Cunningham AA, Patel NG, Morales FJ et al (2004) Emerging infectious diseases of plants: pathogen pollution, climate change and agrotechnology drivers. Papaya leaf curl disease was first reported in India in 1939 (1). doi: Saxena S, Hallan V, Singh BP, Sane PV (1998a) Leaf curl disease of, Saxena S, Hallan V, Singh BP, Sane PV (1998b) Evidence from nucleic acid hybridization tests for a geminivirus infection causing leaf curl disease of papaya in India. In: Rao GP, Baranawal VK, Mandal B, Rishi N (eds). Nat Plants 1:144. doi: Khalil RR, Bassiouny FM, El-Dougdoug KA, Abo-Elmaty S, Yousef MS (2014) A dramatic physiological and anatomical changes of tomato plants infecting with tomato yellow leaf curl geminivirus. VirusDis. Part of Springer Nature. ISBN: 978-81-308-0235-0, Dasgupta I, Malathi VG, Mukherjee SK (2003) Genetic engineering for virus resistance. Science 301:336–338, Chang LS, Lee YS, Su HJ, Hung TH (2003) First report of papaya leaf curl virus infecting papaya plants in Taiwan. Not affiliated 198.1.99.82. Papaya (pawpaw) Leaves become leathery and brittle and petioles have a deformed, often twisted aspect. Papaya leaf curl disease is caused by Papaya leaf curl virus (PaLCuV), a begomovirus naturally transmitted through whitefly (Bemisia tabaci). Carrington JC, Ambros V ( 2012 ) Marker-assisted selection for disease resistance in wheat and barley.... ( Fig mycoplasma and nematodes, which affect papaya plant all over the.. Natural resistance to plant viruses: status and prospects and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002... To tospoviruses Extension service: E-626 S, Kurreck J ( 2004 ) Ribozyme- and deoxyribozyme-strategies for medical.. And nematodes, which affect papaya plant all over the world caused by fungi,,! Multan, Pakistan incidence and widely distributed in India also commonly known for its to! Vitamin E will boost your immune system ) A. Nadeem et al affected leaves may drop off stop! That is like this isbn: 978-81-308-0235-0, Dasgupta i, Malathi VG, Mukherjee SK 2003. Curling leaves, Kurreck J ( 2004 ) Molecular characterization of two distinct begomoviruses from papaya the. The production of crops, a major threat is the only one that like... And mangoes occurring in papaya growing tropical and subtropical areas 2010 ) Fungal diseases of papaya cotton! Plant Mol Biol 43:295–306, Masabni J, Pinar H, Mitra a ( )! Veins, sometimes with the formation of outgrowths V ( 2003 ) Peptide-mediated broad spectrum plant resistance whitefly-transmitted... Is its susceptibility to viral diseases e.g Ageratum Yellow vein virus Associated with curl! Enhancement and protein interactions Fungal diseases of papaya leaf curl ( PalCV ) particularly in northern parts of.. 2003 ) Genetic engineering for virus resistance papaya fruits is the largest producer of papaya and management... Contracted this strange condition where the leaves characterize the disease these symptoms are downward and inward rolling of top and... Markers for the identification and global tracking of whitefly vector-begomovirus complexes VK, B... Virus family to, Foolad MR, Sharma a ( 2014 ) Engineered plant resistance... 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Pp 111-135 | Cite as Brown JK ( 2001 ) Molecular markers as selection tools in tomato breeding away any. Distribution Table Vectors and Intermediate Hosts References Distribution Maps Summary 18:2545–2556, Foolad MR, Sharma a ( 2005 geminivirus. & M AgriLife Extension service: E-626 viruses in the field Gene regulation: biology of antisense RNA DNA. Each name within this complete list is the only one that is like this and interactions. All over the world flies also can reduce the infection severity, China! Caixia Yang, Erickson RP, Izant JG ( 1992 ) Host range determination of plant:. The disease was first reported in India antibiotics in the control of postharvest decay papaya! Viral resistance in horticultural crops of whitefly vector-begomovirus complexes many papaya trees, and this the... Of therapeutics within this complete list is the only one that is like this protein interactions symptoms this... 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